Instances of Pediatric Violent Injury in Los Angeles County Are Associated With Childhood Opportunity Index
Erin E Ross1, Sassi Sarnthiyakul2, Shadassa Ourshalimian3, *Ryan Spurrier3, Pradip Chaudhari3
1University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA;2University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA;3Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA
Background (issue):Research has demonstrated a relationship between violence and factors such as individual parental income , and proximity economic opportunities . In the present study, we utilize the Childhood Opportunity Index (COI), which comprises 29 factors across 3 domains:Education, Health & Environment, and Social & Economic to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood opportunity and the number of incidents of violence among children across the zip codes of LosAngeles County.Methods:The Trauma and Emergency Medicine InformationSystem (TEMIS) is a registry of 15trauma centers across LosAngeles (LA) county. We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study of children aged <18 years from 2017-2019 who were entered inTEMIS with violent mechanisms of injury (MOI), excluding self-inflicted injury. The incidences of violent MOI per 100,000 persons under18 years for each zip code were calculated using population data from the US CensusAmericanCommunity Survey 5-Year estimates from 2019.The incidences of violence per capita under 18years for each zip code was compared to the zip code COI via simple linear regression model.Findings:Of 298 residential zip codes included, 80(26.8%) had greater than 5 cases of violent injury per 100,000 persons under 18. Of these, 64 zip codes (80%) have “low” or “very low” COI scores. There was a significant negative relationship between metro-normed COI score and instances of violent pediatric injuries for zip codes in LA county (p<0.01).Conclusions (implications for practice): Children living in low opportunity zip codes had greater rates of violent injury. Further study of neighborhood factors are needed to determine effective interventions to reduce violent injuries among children living in low opportunity areas.
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