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Infiltrating Monocytes Modulate Microglial Activation Through TLR4-interferon Dependent Pathways Following TBI
Mahmoud El Baassiri, Simon Rahal, William Fulton, Chhinder Sodhi, *Isam W. Nasr
John Hopkins, Baltimore, MD

Background (issue): Authorship of surgical research is important for the career advancement of aspiring female surgeons, and disparities in authorship may hinder female representation within academic surgery. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the distribution of first, senior, and overall authorship in all peer-reviewed surgical journal studies across all surgical specialties to determine if any disparities exist.
Methods: Pubmed, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched for studies investigating the gender distribution of authorship of surgical research published before December 10th, 2021. Meta-analysis was performed and Cohen’s Q test for heterogeneous effects was used to determine whether random or fixed effects models were appropriate.
Findings: Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis demonstrated the meta-proportion of female first authorship to be 20.6% (95% CI: 13.9, 28.2), the meta-proportion of female senior authorship to be 11.9% (95% CI: 6.6, 18.5), and the meta-proportion of female overall authorship to be 23% (95% CI: 16.2, 30.7). The proportion of female senior authors was found to be significantly lower than the proportion of female authors overall (11.9% versus 23.0%, p = 0.0106).
Conclusions (implications for practice): Females represent a significantly smaller proportion of first, senior, and overall authorship positions of surgical research compared to their male colleagues. Sustainable and effective solutions geared towards improving the representation of female surgeons in surgical research are necessary


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