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Whole Blood Deployment Initiative for Mass Casualty Incidents: Regional Experience in South Texas
Angelo Ciaraglia, MD1; Erika Brigmon, MD1; Maxwell Braverman, DO1; Emily Kidd, MD2; CJ Winckler3; Eric Epley3; Jose Flores3; John Barry3; Daniel DeLeon3; Elizabeth Waltman3; Brian Eastridge, MD1; Ronald Stewart, MD1; Lillian Liao, MD1; Susannah Nicholson, MD, MS1; Donald Jenkins, MD1
1University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Department of Surgery, San Antonio, TX; 2Acadian Ambulance Service, San Antonio, TX; 3STRAC Regional Whole Blood Program, San Antonio, TX

Background (issue): Surgeon burnout has received increasing attention due to evidence of high prevalence across specialties. We aimed to systematically characterize existing definitions, evaluation tools, and risk factors of surgical burnout to provide recommendations to mitigate surgeon burnout moving forward.
Methods: PubMed, Google Scholar, and Embase databases were searched to identify burnout rates and tools used to measure the quality of life (QoL) published from January 2000-December 2021.
Findings: We identified 39 studies that defined surgical burnout, with 9 separate tools used to measure QoL. Surgeon burnout rates were found to be highest among general surgery trainees (20-95%). Burnout among general surgery attendings ranged from 25-44%. Those most likely to experience burnout were younger and female. High rates of surgeon burnout were reported among all surgical specialties; however, these rates were lower than those of general surgeons.
Conclusions (implications for practice): Definitions of burnout vary throughout the surgical literature, but are consistently characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and lack of personal accomplishment. The most utilized tool to measure surgical burnout has been the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Across specialties, there are high rates of burnout in both surgical trainees and attendings, indicating that this is a systemic issue within the field of surgery. Given the wide-scale nature of the problem, it is recommended that institutions provide support to surgical trainees and attending surgeons and that individual surgeons take steps towards mitigating burnout.


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